Author Archive: John Wiles

From the hot spot MeToo, reflecting on the development of feminist art

The recent spate of women’s marches and MeToo movements have shaken up the art and culture industries, and with the frequent revelations of sexual assault, we are once again focusing our attention on the subject of feminist art. Art institutions around the world are increasingly focusing on women artists, and major solo and group exhibitions of women artists are coming up. Join us today for a look at the development of feminist art!

The Emergence and Development of Feminist Art

Feminist art is an important artistic trend that has emerged in the Western art world, reflecting the demand of some female theorists and artists to change the previous spheres of social life and male-dominated cultural phenomena in order to reconceptualize women themselves and the relationship between gender and culture.

Women’s Affirmative Action Movement

We usually divide feminism into two phases: the first wave of feminism, which took place between the 19th and early 20th centuries, centered on the struggle for women’s voting and civil rights, while the second wave of feminism, the feminist movement that emerged in the 1960s, was more broadly concerned with women’s access to more jobs and education, while emphasizing women’s sexual and family rights. Driven by the latter, awakened “new women” took to the streets to protest society’s unfair employment policies and oppressed family status and sexual freedom. This led to the emergence of women’s art as part of the second-wave feminist movement, in which women artists formed groups and held exhibitions with the intention of subverting the male-dominated discourse of art history.

Strictly feminist artists did not emerge until the 1970s. Female artists represented by Anna Mantilta, Eleanor Antin, Carolee Schneemann and Judy Chicago created impressive feminist works. Among them, American female artist Judy Chicago’s installation “The Dinner Party” can be said to be very representative. 1979 “The Dinner Party” was first exhibited at the San Francisco Museum of Art, and this installation, which records 1,038 ancient goddesses or prominent women in Western history, mainly consists of a large equilateral triangular banquet table with each side 48 feet long, the triangle symbolizing women and the equilateral sides symbolizing equality. The triangle symbolizes women and the equilateral sides symbolize equality. Each side of the equilateral triangle is divided into 13 units, each equipped with a tablecloth embroidered with a woman’s name and a graphic related to her contribution, a napkin, a dinnerware set, a wine glass and a 14-inch diameter round painted ceramic plate. The 39 plates represent 39 prominent women in various fields from ancient Greece to the present, corresponding to the embroidered names. 39 plates are directly painted with female genitalia, like butterflies or flowers, and gradually change from flat to high relief in order from ancient to modern times, symbolizing the elevated status of women. The 13 women in each group who share the meal correspond to the 13 male saints of the Last Supper, elevating women to the same status as men, a heroic hymn to women. The names of another 999 prominent women are inscribed on the white ceramic floor of the equilateral triangular table known in Chicago as the “Heritage Floor” to show how many women stand behind the 39 famous women. Clearly, the work demonstrates the outstanding contributions that women have made to society from ancient times to the present, and by celebrating women, it is hoped that women will be given equal status with men and that the desire for equal rights for humanity will be realized. Politically, this work undoubtedly challenges the oppression of women under male domination in a radical way, and works to preserve the spiritual heritage created by women throughout history. At the same time, in the social context of the time, the message of this work itself is evidence of the rise of contemporary women’s art.

Judy Chicago, installation “Dinner

Today, feminist art has become an important branch of contemporary art. Feminist art represents, to a certain extent, the voice of a vulnerable and repressed group, and is an attempt to deconstruct a male-centered society. Following the second wave of feminism feminism began to take a new turn, it no longer places special emphasis on a confrontational nature, but shows women’s own joyful experiences and feelings, and feminist art has received a new interpretation.

Feminist Art Expressions

With the development of society, the topic of “feminism” has gradually been taken seriously and has become a focus of constant attention and debate. For example, on February 22nd of this year, an international symposium on “Contemporary Chinese Women’s Art” was held at the Tate Modern in London, England, co-organized by the Tate Center for Asian Studies and the Art Museum of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, as part of the exhibition “Emergence: Women’s Voices in Chinese Contemporary Art. This international symposium on “Chinese Contemporary Women’s Art” was held at Tate Modern in London as part of the exhibition “Emergence: Women’s Voices in Chinese Contemporary Art. The exhibition, which spanned the entire United Kingdom, opened up more possibilities for understanding women’s art. At a time when men dominate the discourse of society, women’s voices are often ignored and drowned out. Instead, female artists have created many artworks with distinctive characteristics of the times through their perceptions of the changes of the times and their reflections on society and themselves. These works are undoubtedly representative and epoch-making in themselves, and they can arouse people’s spiritual resonance and shock.

Andrea Powers, “Marianne is a Trans-Feminist (originally from a poster for the French National War Loan, painted by Georges Scott, 1917),” 2018, price: $55,000

The 1970s was the heyday of contemporary art, and feminism found its place and avenues of appeal in the pluralistic structure of post-structuralism. It was also the most glorious time for feminist art, and many famous feminist artists emerged, emphasizing a female perspective, and their works were full of resistance and rebellion against the patriarchal center. For example, Yoko Ono’s “Slice” is one of the representative works: she sits on the floor and invites the audience to cut off her clothes piece by piece with scissors, and finally she appears naked and trembling in front of people’s eyes. There is also a female artist, Oran, who kept doing plastic surgery until her originally beautiful face became very scary. And each cosmetic procedure was filmed and toured the world. These are all excellent works of feminist art, and what they have in common is that they are fighting against a history of women being watched. Feminist art of this period is critical and in some ways can be used as a way of visual criticism of feminist theory.

Yoko Ono “Slice

Each time, people see a different Oran because the stage she performs on is the operating room and the show she performs is silicone surgery.

When it comes to the expression of feminist art, the connection with “sex” is inevitable. The emphasis on sexuality in early Western feminist art had its own special historical background. 19th century Europe was influenced by the severe religious sexual confinement of Victorian England, which imposed harsh requirements on virginity and chastity and discriminated against women; strict monogamy for life and divorce was not allowed even for couples with completely broken relationships; masturbation was considered a blasphemous sin; talking about sex was not allowed, and scientific research and artistic creation related to sex was not allowed. The sexuality-related scientific research and artistic creation were not allowed. For this reason, people were generally subjected to heavy sexual repression. This situation did not fundamentally change until the 1950s and 1960s, when society continued to treat the female body as a tool to serve men and children, and female sexual experience remained off-limits.

Later, as performance art and performing arts expanded in the contemporary field, many female artists used their bodies to interpret women’s control over their own bodies and minds. German artist Rebecca Hong uses her body as a prop to reach into the individual’s spiritual world through photography, video, and performance. One of the artist’s representative performance works is “Unicorn”, in which she wraps her naked body in cloth and exaggerates a long horn on top of her head to show a kind of extended body. This work is called “Body Sculpture”. The way the artist handles her body shows a kind of psychological tentacle, which makes people reflect on the relationship between the human body and the identity of public space. But at the same time, when female artists use sex to express their thoughts, those inappropriate acts of nudity and privacy revert back to the initial state of being voyeuristic, which is always a contradictory existence, and female art continues to develop.

Rebecca Hong “Unicorn

What exactly is feminist art saying?

In the field of art, the creators, curators, collectors, and viewers are usually men, and women are valued more for their roles of being created, viewed, and consumed (a situation that did not gradually loosen until the 1960s/1970s). This imbalance, this network of unequal power relations, is deeply rooted in human consciousness and culture. Feminist artists’ focus on female sexuality and their sexuality challenged previous societal notions of the affirmation of male sexuality and the female body as a mere vehicle for the transmission and satisfaction of male sexuality.

My Bed” by Tracy Emin

In both traditional social life and artistic expression, the female body is mostly viewed and satisfied by men, making women shy away from feeling and expressing their own bodies. However, the female genitalia, as an important part of the female body, is closely linked to women’s lives and spiritual emotions. Early feminist artists were particularly concerned with the physical basis of gender construction because they believed that the fundamental difference between male and female art was the difference in the perception of the body. Feminist art is, in part, a phenomenon in which a female performance artist uses her own body as a prototype for performance and expresses her ideas through performance and makes the audience understand and reflect on them. It is a reflection of the state of life from a woman’s perspective and a reflection on life, thus presenting the demands of women themselves. The transformation of the female body from being viewed to active self-viewing is a construction of female consciousness and a reflection on male power.

Entering public space was a common feature of women’s art and women artists in the 1970s. Women’s art was increasingly exhibited in public spaces such as museums, parks and squares, and women artists increasingly entered some large public projects to create art. However, this does not mean that women can no longer create individually. Women’s entry into public space is not because they want to enter the masculine system by recognizing male characteristics and wanting to be like men, which is against the original purpose of feminist art.

Today, feminist art is much more than simply a question of gender equality; it is more broadly linked to the social contradictions caused by race, class and other minorities, and is a contemporary practice that allows more voices of the “other” to be heard and true human rights to be liberated. As Simone Beauvoir put it, “The nonsense men invent to keep women in a state of oppression is not a question for women to emphasize that they are women, but a question to become fully human.”

Feminist Art Today

As we enter the 21st century, women’s art, despite its diversified appearance, has a generally similar trend: it weakens the confrontation between genders and instead seeks to express women’s unique ways of observing and experiencing the world, or to leave behind the constraints of gender and devote itself to the exploration of humanity in its universal sense. In terms of content, there is a decline in the use of sexual objects or direct expressions of violence or non-violence against women, replaced by recognition of women’s way of life and behavior, and deeper exploration of women’s individual inner world.

Ariel “Choke

Although in reality there are still some female artists who cater to power capital, making their erotic works generally present a situation of creation according to men’s visual aesthetic standards and perspectives and for their psychological needs. They have not succeeded in establishing an effective erotic interaction between themselves and their works, in order to break the trap that erotic or erotic depictions have been monopolized by the male gender. However, in recent years, we can also feel a new trend emerging in women’s art creation: more and more women artists are involved in thinking and creating in the current socio-political dimension. For example, Yan Yinhong’s performance work “One Man’s Battlefield” is a metaphor for the suppression of women in the power society with a nearly crazy dance, and finally, the image of a police officer hidden in the lower half of her body is shown in an upside down position. This is a typical work that critiques the social ecology through the body, and at the same time is branded with feminist characteristics.

This is undoubtedly a direct challenge to the patriarchal society in the form of art, and is a more prominent manifestation of feminist art, but from the perspective of art history, where many contemporary female artists truly distance themselves from male artists is in the reconfiguration of the structure of viewing. With the intervention of female artists’ subjectivity, the use of the female figure, especially the female body, as a viewing object, and the control and possession of the male audience over women safely hidden in elegant artworks, has been fundamentally subverted. The tradition of objectifying the female body in Western art history has continued from the Classical period and continues to dominate art production in modern art in various variants. As John Berger points out in “The Way of Seeing,” “the female body as object is not a subject matter but a form.”

Cecily Brown’s work

Feminist art has been developing for nearly half a century, but either because of preconceived prejudices or because of its own novelty, social standards and artistic mechanisms have always been harsh and severe in their evaluation, but this does not prevent feminist art from moving forward. confidence. Regardless of its profound historical function and practical mission, feminist art has at least changed the pattern of artistic existence with its pioneering and avant-garde nature.

Today, at the market level, the status and attention of women is soaring. The Tate has welcomed its first female curator and planned two of the three major solo exhibitions this year for female artists, namely American video and performance artist Joan Jonas and Bauhaus artist and textile art pioneer Anne Albers, all of these phenomena show that female art is increasingly valued by society.

Conclusion

Feminist art should express works with feminist spiritual connotations, rather than being limited to the formal level of mere nudity. Female artists should not be confined to the established male-dominated ideology but should look for socially meaningful expressive content, and on the premise of both focusing on the real life state of women without being bound by these kitschy ideas, so as to make some art works with practical and effective The future of feminist art will continue to develop as people pay attention to women as a whole and reflect on some social issues.

How Global Art Festivals Drive Art and Public Connections

The question that the public often asks about art is: Why do artworks that seem so simple and random sell for so much? Does it have any special value? In the past, the art world actually did not care about how the public understood and evaluated artworks. Because the art market has formed a closed loop: artists, critics, painters and collectors. In recent years, however, the public’s evaluation has become increasingly important. If a work is collected by a public-oriented gallery/museum and recognized by the public, the artist’s value will multiply. A gap has also opened in the previously closed art circle, and art festivals serving the public’s art needs have been popping up around the world.

An Island Reborn by the Festival

Seto Inland Sea International Arts Festival

The Setouchi International Arts Festival in Japan has been held every three years since 2010. The main venue for the festival is on several small islands near Takamatsu City in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. These islands are scattered across the turquoise blue Seto Inland Sea, and the festival invites renowned artists from around the world to create works based on the local environment of the islands, attracting visitors and art lovers from all over the world.

Vision of Seto Inland Sea, Japan

However, a few decades ago, the Seto Inland Sea island group was not a paradise. These small islands of the Arts Festival sacrificed their ecological environment to develop industry. These islands were once the heart of the birth of Japan’s industrial miracle, and fishermen who had lived by fishing for thousands of years went into the copper smelting industry as a result of the industrial development of the Meiji Restoration. As the industry grew, the surrounding environment began to deteriorate. For example, Naoshima Island became bald and forested because of the sulfite gas released from the refining process, and Toshima and Inujima were contaminated with industrial waste and sulfite gas. As the environment deteriorated, the island’s industries declined, and young people left the island in droves. In this way, the island’s economy continued to decline and aging became more and more serious, and it was about to become an abandoned island. At that time, the Fukutake Foundation of Japan bought the southern part of Naoshima Island and invited famous artists such as Tadao Ando to design art museums and hotels on the island, such as the Benesse House Museum, the Jidaka Museum of Art, and the Ando Museum, etc. Since then, the Setouchi International Art Festival project, which restores the original beauty of the Setouchi Islands and revitalizes the local economy, has been in operation. The Setouchi International Art Festival is now in operation.

The island’s art museum

The island’s art museum

The island’s art museum

Soichiro Fukutake has dissected the reason for the island’s high level of aging is that young people feel that their hometown is not vibrant, not attractive, and not worth staying, so they are leaving in droves. However, Soichiro Fukutake feels that people on the islands live very happy lives, unlike people in big cities who have long daily commutes, work overtime, and have a low sense of well-being.

From this, two main lines of the Setouchi International Arts Festival gradually became clear, the first of which is to use the power of modern art to reinvent the charm of the island. Although the festival is held once every three years, the exhibition period is long, spanning spring, summer and autumn, with different artworks open in different seasons, giving visitors a new experience each time. The island’s artwork is also all-encompassing, the product of a collaborative effort by artists from more than 180 countries.

The second is to tap into the island’s local flavor and revitalize local culture. After the success of the island museum, architects such as Tadao Ando came up with the Empty House Project. The project hopes to rely on the original old houses on the island and renovate them to show the local style and stories. In addition to renovating old houses, local islanders are also actively involved in the creation of the festival, transforming their houses into restaurants and promoting the unique local food culture.

Seto International Art Festival Iconic Sculpture, Yayoi Kusama’s Pumpkin

In this way, the Setouchi International Arts Festival, with its unique charm, has seen an increasing number of visitors, from 970,000 in the first edition to 1.04 million in the recently held third edition. According to the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, the third Setouchi International Arts Festival has boosted the economy of the island and the nearby Kagawa Prefecture, with visitors staying longer and spending more, and the overall economic pulling effect was 13.9 billion yen, an increase of 5% percentage points compared to the 2013 edition.

After years of development, Naoshima, the largest island in the island group, is now known as a mecca for art. The island is scattered with works by well-known artists, and the local islanders have become an important backing force for the festival. Young people who love art have come to the island, and the whole island has become thriving and vibrant.

Some happy, some sad

The failed Sapporo Arts Festival in Japan

Seeing the cultural and economic impact of the Setouchi International Arts Festival, various parts of Japan have followed suit, however, following the trend does not guarantee success, and the Sapporo Arts Festival in Japan, for example, has fallen far short of the expected impact.

Sapporo International Arts Festival Poster

After the first Sapporo Arts Festival in 2014, a lot of reflections and criticisms sprang up on the Japanese internet: the Sapporo Arts Festival was not lively enough and did not have the atmosphere of an arts festival. Sapporo citizens did not have a sense of involvement in the organization of the festival. The promotion of the festival in Sapporo was not consistent and lost its strength halfway through. The first Sapporo International Arts Festival in 2014 was planned by artist Ryuichi Sakamoto, who proposed the theme “From now on, let’s consider how to make the city and nature coexist. ” was the theme of the festival. However, this theme was entirely the artist’s own idea, and the local people neither participated nor resonated with it. This left the festival suspended in the air and lost its appeal. This is in stark contrast to the Setouchi International Art Festival mentioned above, which places special emphasis on the participation and recognition of local residents and has formed a special volunteer squad, led by local residents, with volunteers from various localities working together to help make the festival run smoothly.

Sapporo International Arts Festival Live View

The first failed Sapporo Arts Festival in 2014 did not stop there; in 2017 it relaunched, inviting musician Ryoei Otomo as the chief planner and reflecting on the current situation where arts festivals are blossoming everywhere by proposing a new theme: “What is an arts festival really about?” Unfortunately, this second Sapporo International Arts Festival still did not have the desired effect. Although the number of venues for the second Sapporo International Arts Festival increased from the original 18 venues to 45 venues, the number of visitors dropped from 480,000 in the first edition to 370,000. Many visitors expressed disappointment about the festival. The artworks were too crude, not moving and shocking, but instead began to wonder if they really deserved to be called artworks. Some visitors pointed out that the festival seemed to have borrowed a lot from successful examples such as the Setouchi International Art Festival in order to make up for the shortcomings of the previous one, and copied their models without any new ideas, and there was a suspicion of plagiarism.

Some of the exhibits at the Sapporo International Arts Festival

Some of the exhibits at the Sapporo International Arts Festival

After two consecutive failures, the Sapporo city government was chastised by local residents for squandering tax money willy-nilly without achieving the desired results, and there were strong calls to hold the mayor and the festival planning department accountable. The example of the Sapporo International Arts Festival proves that the festival is not a 100 percent success plan.

Systematic European Art Exhibitions

Venice Biennale and Documenta Kassel

The Venice Biennale has endured for a hundred years and is one of the oldest surviving exhibitions in the world. From the first edition in 1895, it has experienced changes such as the World War and witnessed the development and changes of contemporary art. The Venice Biennale can be said to be the source of the current biennials blossoming all over the world and is also known as the Olympics of the contemporary art world. The international reputation of the Venice Biennale has grown, and the number of visitors from all over the world has increased from 224,000 at the beginning to about 500,000 today. The Venice Biennale consists mainly of the exhibitions in the national pavilions and more than forty parallel exhibitions. On the small island of Venice, almost all the space that can be used for exhibitions is decorated with artworks. The Venice Biennale and China also have a deep connection. Thirteen Chinese artists were invited by Oliva, the chief curator of the Venice Biennale in 1933, and ten years later, Chinese contemporary art occupied an exclusive Chinese pavilion at the Venice Biennale. And by 2017, the number of Chinese exhibiting artists reached a peak of over 300.

The greatest charm of the Venice Biennale is that it is possible to see the development of modern art from all over the world in one venue, becoming a platform for artists, collectors and art lovers from all over the world to exchange ideas. Behind this successful platform, there is also a mature system of operation. The Venice Biennale Organizing Committee is responsible for the overall operation and execution of the Venice Biennale. The Organizing Committee’s funding comes mainly from government grants, the collection of exhibitors’ fees and sponsorship income. However, for the participating artists, the fees paid to the organizing committee are not much, and most of them are paid to the local service providers in Venice. For example, in some categories, exhibitors are restricted from bringing in their own exhibit workers and have to hire local workers at high prices. There is also the cost of hiring exhibition staff and the escalating cost of hotels, food and transportation due to the art exhibitions. It can be said that Venice, a small city on the water, is dependent on the service industry, and the Biennale is the benchmark of Venice.

In addition to the Venice Biennale, another major European art exhibition, Documenta Kassel, has also developed over the years as a result of its development. Documenta is held every five years in the German city of Kassel, and each exhibition lasts for one hundred days, also known as the 100-day museum. The first Kassel Documenta was established in 1955 by artist, teacher and curator Arnauld Bode as part of the Bundesgartenschau (Federal Horticultural Show), which was intended to summarize the early modern present from the 19th to the early 20th century and attracted a total of 130,000 visitors. Its original purpose was to bring German art up to date with the world’s contemporary art, while also critiquing the dark side of Nazi culture.

Two installations by Vlassis Caniaris (1928-2011), “Hopscotch” and “Coexistence”, are on display at Documenta in Kassel

Documenta always adheres to its academic orientation, with a five-year cycle that gives artists at least 1-2 years to create their works. At the same time, unlike other art fairs, Documenta does not accept applications from artists or recommendations from galleries and other art commercial organizations, and its artworks are selected and invited worldwide by a dedicated curatorial team. The entire planning and preparation process is rigorous and meticulous, giving the curators enough time to think and polish, ensuring that the curators’ academic ideas are not infected, and that the entire Documenta has a serious tone, rather than simply bringing artists and enthusiasts together to revel. It has become an important coordinate of international contemporary art, the focus of attention in Western culture, and a mirror image of the times in Western society.

Iconic Exhibit at Documenta 2017 in Kassel: The Parthenon of Books by Marta Minujín

Like the Venice Biennale, Documenta Kassel has changed the story of a city. Kassel was originally an industrial and military city that was bombed into ruins during World War II. The only large city in the northern part of the German state of Hesse is uniquely positioned to develop a base for art exhibitions. With approximately 106 square kilometers and a population of nearly 200,000, the city has enough space for art exhibitions, as well as a local restaurant, accommodation and transportation system to accommodate visitors from all over the world. On the other hand, Kassel has a strong cultural tradition, with the city’s landmark statue of Hercules built during the Renaissance. Thanks to Documenta Kassel, the city has become a city of culture and art.

The most recent 14th Documenta took a step beyond Germany’s borders and opened a section in Athens as well. Chief curator Adam Szymczyk proposed a budget of 37,000,000 euros, and the actual money spent exceeded this figure, making Documenta one of the most expensive visual art exhibitions in the world.

Both the Venice Biennale and Documenta Kassel have developed a complete exhibition system and support system due to their long development time and profound accumulation, and have become world-renowned examples of art exhibitions driving cities.

The Dilemma of South America – Sao Paulo Biennial, Brazil

Founded in 1951, the Bienal de São Paulo is the second oldest biennial in Brazil after the Venice Biennale. The São Paulo Biennial was initiated by Francisco Ciccillo Matarazzo Sobrinho, an industrialist of Italian descent, who was also the president of the Biennial until his death in 1975. Since 1957, the fourth edition has been held in the pavilion of the Biennale, designed by the architect Niemeyer. Like the Venice Biennale, the São Paulo Biennale also chose to combine a national pavilion with an international exhibition. However, unlike Venice, São Paulo Biennale does not have separate national pavilions, but rather has all the national pavilions distributed in one large space. In this way, there is no competition between different countries for favorable pavilions, and to a certain extent, a fairer and more pure environment for artistic discussion is created. The specificity of the São Paulo Biennial stems from its geographical location – Latin America, away from the traditional European centers – and is one of the few art exhibitions in developing countries that has a great global impact and prestige.

The history of the São Paulo Biennial, however, is more difficult. For one thing, the biennial has not received much support from the local government, and for obvious reasons. Brazil, once one of the BRIC countries along with China, India and Russia, is now economically stagnant and heavily in debt. The Brazilian government cannot afford the high operating costs of cultural institutions, and even the cultural program for the Olympic Games has been cancelled due to funding problems. Therefore, the São Paulo Biennial is in a very bad situation. Compared with the strong government financial support behind Documenta in Kassel, Germany and the Venice Biennale, the São Paulo Biennial enjoys less than 10% of the financial aid. The huge scale and expenses have to rely on private and corporate sponsorship.

Poster for the 2016 Sao Paulo Biennial, Brazil, on the theme of existential uncertainty

In addition to the financial troubles, the São Paulo Biennial came to face a volatile political situation. This conflict reached its peak in 2016, immediately after the closing of the problematic 2016 Olympic Games, which was followed by the Brazilian Biennale. During the Olympics, the Brazilian public was extremely vocal in its opposition to the government’s spending of large amounts of tax money to host the Games, disregarding the living standards of the local population. At the time, politician Michel Temer automatically took office without being elected and with the support of the military. He removed Dilma Rousseff, Brazil’s first female president in office at the time, and tens of thousands of people took to the streets during the Brazilian Biennale to protest and demand Temer’s ouster. President Temer had also proposed at the 2016 G20 summit to abolish the Ministry of Culture to balance the fiscal deficit. The dramatically volatile political situation and the government’s reduced cultural investment have overshadowed the Brazilian Biennale.

Gabriel Perez-Barreiro, chief curator of the 33rd edition of the São Paulo Biennial

And this year Brazil will welcome the 33rd Bienal de São Paulo, from September 7 to December 9. Chief curator Gabriel Perez-Barreiro wants to use the Bienal as an opportunity to rethink the way the Bienal is organized, and he has invited seven artists to create seven different exhibitions based on this year’s theme: “Affective Affinities He invited seven artists to create seven different exhibitions based on this year’s theme: “Affective Affinities” (Affective Affinities). Let’s wait and see what kind of surprises the Brazilian Biennale will bring to us in this seamy survival.

The Abstractionists Lead the oil Painting Market, What Makes the Unreadable Paintings Sell so Well?

Among the most expensive paintings at auction in the world, abstract art is a common sight. When this unintelligible painting sells for hundreds of millions of dollars, one wonders: how can a work that looks like anyone can paint be so valuable? Today, let’s enter the world of abstract painting and understand the mystery!

Abstraction fever in the auction market

In today’s auction market, abstract miracles are not uncommon, and various auction data show that abstract works have become a trend to sell. On the evening of May 15, Christie’s New York 20th Century Art Week “Impressionist and Modern Art Evening Sale” was held. Among them, Kazimir Malevich’s abstract painting “suprematist composition” in the form of consultation price auction, $60 million starting, $76 million hammer, plus commission finally sold for $85.81 million, about 537 million yuan, a world auction record for his works, but also the most expensive Russian art.

Kazimir Malevich “Suprematist Composition

Just a few days ago, on the evening of May 9, the second evening auction of the Century Sale – “The Collection of Peggy and David Rockefeller” – went under the hammer, with 41 lots covering Edward Hopper, Georgia O’Keeffe and Willem de Kooning, among other outstanding American artists of the 20th century. The second sale of the “Rockefellers’ Collection” was completed with 41 lots. Among them, de Kooning’s late abstract work Untitled XIX sold for $14,262,500, making it the highest priced work in the auction.

De Kooning’s Untitled XIX

Zao Wou-ki’s paintings sold in Paris galleries 20 years ago for no more than $50,000, but nowadays, whenever they appear on the auction block, they generate records in the tens of millions of dollars. On the evening of May 27, 2017, the sale of 29.09.64 at Christie’s Hong Kong ended up at HK$152.86 million, putting Zao’s works in the “Billion Dollar Club”. Zao Wou-ki’s “fever” was particularly intense, not only witnessing the vibrancy of the Asian modern art market, but also highlighting Zao Wou-ki’s charm as a reigning figure in both the Eastern and Western art worlds. A few months later at Christie’s Hong Kong Autumn Auction “Evening Sale of Twentieth Century and Contemporary Art”, Zao Wou-ki’s “29.01.64” sold for HK$202.6 million after 13 minutes of bidding, setting a new personal record for the second time in 2017. The last time this record was rewritten was only six months ago. Successive auction records were set, and each time the improvement was more than 35%. This is, as Christie’s Asia’s International Director of Twentieth Century and Contemporary Art Zhang Ding Yuan said, “In the art trading market, Zao Wou-ki’s best era has clearly come.” And it also represents, to some extent, the onset of the abstract painting boom!

Zao Wou-ki, 29.09.64

Unreadable = expensive?

The explosion of abstract art is most strongly evidenced in the auction market. Data from major auction houses show that abstract works have always been at the top of the “pyramid”. In the world’s most expensive works at auction, abstract art has the highest price, ranking first. But at the same time, abstract art is very contradictory, many people feel that it is not beautiful and unintelligible, but many others feel that abstract art is one of the greatest achievements of human art.

What is the rationale for abstract painting being so expensive? The reason lies in the logic of art history, and the logic of capital is to follow the logic of art history. Indeed, abstract painting no theme, no characters, no narrative, no plot, only color combinations plus dotted lines, the godfather of American abstract expressionist art, Greenberg once said, is because of abstract art, the concept, theme, characters, narrative from art completely removed, art has become pure and clean, art is the real art, art is no longer reduced to a political tool, bending to what the main theme and the pursuit of positive Only then will art become pure and clean. Abstract art is the “flat revolution” of painting, the sum of formalist painting, and the highest achievement of modernist art.

The earliest abstract art works were painted by Kandinsky around 1910, which is only a little over a hundred years ago. Since China’s modern art is dominated by realism, most people can’t understand abstract art, because of the lack of abstract aesthetic awareness training.

Abstract art was the ultimate goal of Western modernist art pioneered by Cézanne, and the greatest achievement in the history of Western modernist art. However, abstract painting is not so easy to understand in the West, even for the ordinary viewers living in the same cultural soil, but it is an artistic and cultural progress. In the twentieth century, Western artists who cherished freedom began to explore breakthroughs, trying to get rid of the traditional concept that painting must imitate nature, thus gradually formed abstract oil painting. As Arsene Polibny added, “Although the value of abstract painting cannot be underestimated, it has still not become an integral part of popular culture”. For the Chinese audience, Western modern abstract art is more of a heavenly book that is difficult to decipher. For the Western audience, the main reason for not understanding abstract art is the professional barrier; for the Chinese audience, besides the professional barrier, there is a more important reason for the difference in worldview and way of thinking.

From the above analysis, we can see that it is not because we can’t understand the abstract oil painting that its value becomes high, the reason for the high price of the painting and the meaning of the painting itself is inseparable. We often say we can’t understand abstract oil painting, but if we quietly appreciate it, we believe we can always understand its essence!

The development of abstractionism

Abstraction is the relative concept of figuration. It is the concept of extracting the common denominator of many things and synthesizing them into a new concept, which is called abstraction. Abstract painting is a general term for the 20th century painting style that wanted to move away from imitating nature. In the 1930s and after World War II, various forms derived from the concept of abstraction became the most popular and characteristic art styles of the twentieth century. The development of contemporary Chinese modern abstract art and contemporary Chinese abstract Chinese painting is mainly in two situations. One is the exogenous “East-meets-West” contemporary abstract art, which is mainly the Chinese modern art and contemporary art with reference to the Western contemporary art system.

Palisade” by Willem de Kooning

Abstract painting is based on intuition and imagination, and rejects any symbolic, literary or illustrative expressions, and only synthesizes and organizes shapes and colors on the screen. Therefore, the pure form and color presented in abstract painting is similar to music. The development trend of abstract painting can be roughly divided into: geometric abstraction (or cold abstraction), which is based on Cézanne’s theory and developed through Cubism, Constructivism and Neo-Formism. It is characterized by a geometric tendency. This school of painting can be represented by Mondrian; the other is lyrical abstraction (or hot abstraction). This school is based on the artistic concept of Gauguin, developed by Fauvism and Expressionism, and has a romantic tendency. This school can be represented by Kandinsky.

Kandinsky’s “White Line Composition

In fact, since the 1980s, the development of Chinese abstract painting has always had a reference system of Western abstract art. The internal reason is that, after the end of the “Chinese Cultural Revolution” in 1976, the art world began to emerge from the “Cultural Revolution art”, to get rid of the cultural function of art serving politics and mainstream ideology, and to gradually restore artists’ creative freedom and rebuild art The external reason is that, since 1978, the art world has been in a state of flux. The external reason is that since 1978, the Chinese government has implemented the economic development strategy of “reform and opening up”, and the economic reform that came along with the “emancipation of the mind” inevitably faced the challenge of learning from the West in the field of culture and art. It is in this context that the emergence of abstract painting in China has at least a double significance: one is to restore the creative freedom of artists and reshape the ontological value of art. The other is that, due to the elitism, individualism and cultural rebellion spirit of Western abstract art, the emergence of abstract painting in China also had the cultural enlightenment color of rebellion against autocracy, desire for liberation and call for freedom from the very beginning.

Zao Wou-ki, 24.12.2002-Diptych

Some people regard Western modern abstract art as the opposite of traditional realistic art, and think that abstract art is a betrayal of realistic art. We should know that, although abstract art and realistic art are so different, but the two have a lineage of inherent connection. In essence, Western realistic art and abstract art are the products of rationalism, the difference between the two is only the difference between Newton’s classical physics and Einstein’s modern physics. Abstract art represents the new achievements of Westerners in the age of industrial civilization in exploring the universe and its mysteries by means of modern science. In a strict sense, abstract art, like realistic art, is not a subjective fabrication of the artist; it is a true representation of the objective world.

Mondrian’s work “Composition A

Future value trend prediction

If abstract art has its special characteristics, then it lies in its more open scope. In terms of a narrow “abstraction”, we can’t seem to find the beginning and the end of its history, and it’s hard to cover the motives and purposes of artists with one or two ideas. It seems that there is always something called abstraction, and under the same name there are many different artists such as Kandinsky, Mondrian, Koonin, Pollock, Miro, Malevich, Fontana and so on. From this level, the evaluation of the value of abstract art works, the creation of the motive, the purpose of the grasp is more important, which is also the difficulty of the evaluation of abstract art.

Jackson Pollock, No. 5, 1948

As a style of art that has always been mind-boggling, abstract painting has been unprecedentedly hot in the foreign auction market, while in China has been a cold door. With the rebound of the domestic auction market, as well as the continuous drive of the foreign abstract market, before in the domestic attention less abstract painting category has been the attention of funds, including Zao Wou-ki, Zhu Dequn and other abstract painting master’s works in the domestic and foreign auction market repeatedly shot sky-high prices. Obviously, in the international art investment market occupies an important seat of abstract art, is hot in the Chinese auction market!

Jackson Pollock “14 in Grey

As for the current market trend of abstract style, curator Li Xu believes that the current urban construction mode is becoming more internationalized, and the design tendency of various public and private spaces is becoming more and more concise, the trend of abstract artworks occupying an important visual position under such a status quo is irreversible, which is an objective visual demand triggered by the overall living environment of the urbanization era. In addition, the continued development of the art market needs a new economic growth point, in a type of work sales rise and gradually become weak, as soon as possible to seek new profit points and value-added space will be the common direction of the entire market. Analysts said, China’s art market is ushering in the plate rotation era, in this sense, the domestic abstract art by the collection community “lag”, but also because of this “lag”, may be the achievement of abstract art collection opportunities.

If you’ve been paying attention to the abstract painting market, you’ve seen a gallery emerge at this point in time whose two founders are “the most unbeatable” art brokers. About a month or so after the duo was founded, Dominique Lévy, one of the world’s top contemporary art brokers, and Brett Gorvy, former Christie’s executive and chairman and international head of the Post-War and Contemporary Art department, immediately realized their first high-profile exhibition, a two-person solo show of Willem de Kooning and Zao Wou-ki Such a strong combination will be a powerful force in the future of abstract painting and will further enhance the market impact of the abstract school!

Brett Gorvy and Dominique Lévy of Lévy Gorvy Gallery

Conclusion.

With the market operation of auction houses and galleries, the aesthetic of abstract art is slowly changing for everyone in China, and the overall acceptance of abstract works in China has been increasing in the past two years. However, because the segment is not fully mature, some of the abstract works with value are complicated and difficult to interpret, which hinders their market recognition. But we believe that in the future development of the market, the abstract painting school will be more understood and accepted!

The Past and Present of Art Criticism

In the world of art, artists produce works, galleries and museums showcase them, and collectors end up buying them. Between these interlocking art gears, art criticism acts as a lubricant. Art critics are neither the creators nor the buyers of art; they connect art to its audience, being both an insider and a distance from all parties. Compared with other critics (such as film critics and book critics), art critics seem to be more mysterious. They are like shadows, always following the development of art.

The Origin and Development of Art Criticism

In ancient times, the opportunity to appreciate art was more often controlled by the elite class, and the general public lacked the opportunity to encounter art, let alone express artistic opinions. Therefore, it was not until the Renaissance that a number of detailed art analyses and critical essays on certain artists emerged. Prior to that, there were texts that resembled art criticism, but they were not systematic. The earliest art critical texts date back to the Cronica (1308-64), a work by Giovanni, Matteo and Filippo Villani, during the Renaissance.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, art treatises proliferated and offered many insights. Albrecht Dürer, for example, was the first art critic to state that “the Renaissance began in Florence, Italy,” and the first to analyze the intellectual emancipation underlying the Renaissance movement.

By the 17th century, theoretical criticism (theoretical art criticism) entered the picture, basing their analysis on reason and viewing art as the embodiment of the human creative mind. In the 18th century, the French writer Denis Diderot further expanded the medium of art criticism. His work The Salon of 1765 was the first attempt to portray artworks in written form. It was also during this time that newspapers and magazines began to create independent art criticism sections, and in the 1870s the Morning Chronicle became the first newspaper to systematically publish information about art exhibitions.

By the 19th century, artists were no longer working for religions or governments, but were free to create their own works, and private lives and everyday objects could be the subject of paintings, and sketches of paintings were allowed to be included in the list of works to be exhibited. As the art world became more liberal, tolerant and diverse, art criticism also blossomed.

Art Criticism Advances Art History

After centuries of development, a consensus gradually emerged on the content norms of art criticism articles, while the diversity of the objects of art criticism – the artworks themselves – was expanded. After World War II, the center of world art shifted from Paris to New York. As the center of art shifted, American art critics began to shine. At the time, the major American magazines were engaged in a war of attrition for the public’s attention, and the battlefield extended to art criticism. As a result, art criticism articles were printed and distributed to a wider audience with the mass circulation of magazines.

It can be said that the prestige of American art critics reached its peak in the 1920s and 1950s. Among the most influential of these critics were Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg. The two art critics, who were close friends of each other, were at odds with each other in their professional views, discussing the topic of “the maturation of American contemporary art,” proposing an analytical approach to abstract art, and successfully promoting the development of the abstract art movement in the United States.

 

Art critic Clement Greenberg is admiring a painting

Art critic Clement Greenberg is admiring a painting

The art critic Clement Greenberg, known for his theory of formalism, also introduced a new object of criticism, institutional criticism, and began to evaluate conceptual art.

Greenberg’s most significant contribution was his identification of derivative works of action painting and his recognition of the creative acts of artists. In his 1952 essay, “The American Action Painters,” he wrote:(The new American painting is not ‘pure’ art, since the extrusion of the object was not for the sake of the aesthetic. The apples weren’t brushed off the table in order to make room for perfect relations of space and color. They had to do so that nothing would get in the way of the act of painting.)”This statement directly confronts Rosenberg’s emphasis on the formal and technical nature of painting.

Greenberg is looking at a painting

For Greenberg, Abstract Expressionism was not a continuation of modern art, but a new beginning in art history. He believed that freedom was inherent in the creation of art, and that “the moment one decides to paint is the moment of greatness. Every movement wielded on the canvas was synonymous with liberation from political, aesthetic and moral bondage. Yet Greenberg did not choose to embrace subsequent artistic movements, such as Pop Art and Minimalism, and reflects his certain limitations.

Art critic Harold Rosenberg

On the other hand, the art critic Harold Rosenberg proposed abstract expressionism, along with support for action painters. Rosenberg’s art criticism has not only provoked thought in readers for its insights related to contemporary art, but has also directly influenced artists’ work. His critical essays have been called the cornerstone of understanding abstract expressionism, formalism, and “non-objective” art.

Artist Jackson Pollock is creating

Thanks to Rosenberg’s sensitivity and foresight in contemporary art, he had the good sense to discover the artist who would become famous, Jackson Pollock. Rosenberg first mentioned Pollock’s name in a 1943 art article for the magazine The Nation: I was surprised and gratified to discover Jackson Pollock’s abstract works that were not overly abstract. He was the first painter I knew who could convey a positive force through his busy colors, and his work can be said to profoundly embody the essence of American painting (There is both surprise and fulfillment in Jackson Pollock’s not so abstract He is the first painter I know of to have got something positive from the muddiness of color that so profoundly characterizes a great deal of (American painting.). “The professional and forward-looking nature of art criticism is exemplified by the career journeys of two outstanding art critics, Greenberg and Rosenberg. Their contributions influenced the subsequent decades of art criticism, and to this day their art theory is an inescapable topic of conversation in art criticism.

Has current art criticism gone stale?

In the past, people had the impression that art criticism was mainly about interpreting art and judging its aesthetic value, and the status of art critics was highly respected for their high insight into and art. At the same time, artists also accept the opinions of art critics, allowing a positive circular mechanism to form between art criticism and art creation.

However, art criticism, once highly revered, is losing its voice in today’s age. Art historian James Elkins has pessimistically commented, “Art criticism is dying, it is being mass produced and massively ignored.” He argued that art criticism was becoming uninteresting, losing its professionalism and losing its originality over the past twenty years. Art critics have become more like the PR heads of contemporary artists, galleries and art markets, becoming a part of the contemporary art machine that supports the constant stream of money it spits out. As a result, the commercial value of art exceeds its spiritual value, aesthetic, emotional, cognitive, moral and other intangible values. As a result, each work of art is displayed to stimulate collectors’ impulse to consume, just like mass consumer goods that are mass-produced to expand sales. The article of art criticism is more like a loudspeaker, in order to hype and corroborate the value of a certain artwork and thus attract collectors’ consumption.

Cartoons on the subject of art criticism

Art criticism has become less neutral, and we sometimes see art criticism articles in the form of propaganda copy. In addition, the influence of art criticism is not what it used to be. Artists and curators have become the biggest stars in the art world, and art critics, who were the gatekeepers, have been pushed to the margins. For example, the star artists, Damien Hirst and Jeff Koons, whose work has always been sought after by the market, with thousands of dollars pouring into their pockets, and whose work is still paid for by the market even when art critics write a critique of their art, the power of art criticism The appeal of art criticism has diminished. The value of a work of art is increasingly aligned with its final price, and the art critic has lost the control it once had: the art critic.

Art Criticism in the Wave of Change

With the development of technology and public art institutions, art has begun to move from the high halls to the masses, and the winds in the field of art criticism have shifted. In particular, the development of the Internet has brought art resources that were once scattered around the world within reach, while every Internet user has the opportunity to speak online and have his or her words seen by all. As a result, thousands of art-related articles are produced every day, including traditional news reports on an art event, art sections in magazines, exhibition brochures, observational articles on the art market and academic analyses of artworks, as well as a fragmented amount of art-related commentary online. Mixed and diverse, serious art criticism seems to be losing its presence in comparison to the well-presented and comprehensible art-related articles.

Cartoons on the subject of art criticism

At the same time, the bar for contributors of art articles is being lowered. Social networking platforms encourage users to share their personal feelings about a particular piece of art or exhibition. In a way, this implies that everyone can review art, share their own personal feelings and become an art critic. The entrance to art criticism has become wider than ever, and the boundaries of judging art review articles have become blurred.

On the one hand, this approach liberates the power that originally belongs to art experts to the public and frees up an infinite variety of perspectives on art. But on the other hand, the viewers, in the process of commenting, connect their own experiences and ideas to the artwork and the insights they get sometimes do not match the artist’s original intentions.

At the same time, on the Internet, the public’s communication with artworks and art critics is no longer the one-way flow it used to be. Those lofty and authoritative art criticism articles appear less and less frequently, and more young people choose to browse artworks and read short art reviews on their cell phones. In a way, the cell phone has become a mini-exhibition, and the decider of its content is ourselves. We can decide whether we want to follow an artist or let a genre’s work disappear into the mobile stream. We can also express our own attitudes by liking, retweeting and sharing.

In the face of the current mixed environment of art criticism, many people cannot help but lament that art criticism is dead. But the changing environment also holds a new development direction for art criticism. The current art scene is rapidly changing, and one cannot help but feel dazzled. In the midst of this massive output, the majority of artworks are merely mediocre, and people are desperate for someone to help them identify and sift through them. This has always been one of the functions of art criticism – to identify the quality and value of artworks, what is good and what is bad, in order to prompt artists to reflect and develop.

At the same time, as art becomes more and more popular, art critics have taken on a new function: popularizing art, encouraging more people to participate in art appreciation, distinguishing between good and bad, and prompting them to think. An art critic, in contrast to the general public, is a person with professional knowledge who builds on his or her own past experiences and cultural environment to evaluate a particular work of art or exhibition. Different art critics will again have different views and opinions on art works. Those who are curious about the art world can find another way of looking at the same work of art through art criticism articles, and the additional information that comes with art criticism can prompt the reader to think further about the meaning of the work.

Conclusion

Art criticism is like a mirror, calmly and objectively analyzing the development of this art from a third party’s perspective. Although more and more people have a channel to share their art views, there are few art critics who can truly have a voice and influence the direction of artists’ creations and the art market. The more art blossoms, the more we need art criticism to guide us through the vast array of choices.

Psychologist Tilmann Moser on Painting and the Soul – “Family is the challenge of art”

Mr Moser, you are a psychoanalyst dealing with the Nazi era and the long-term effects of war. How did you get into art?
I have always loved going to museums. During my studies, the museum landscape in Berlin particularly inspired me.

Any key experiences?
Picasso was a key figure for me. When I was at school there was a lot of criticism of his work. Many people said it was not art. At some point, I looked closely at the works and found myself in them. Later added the landscapes I had seen in Italy. I realised that she was psychologically interested in me.

What is the connection between soul and painting?
I think landscape artists are as sensitive to this subject as psychoanalysts are. I would even say that you do some form of emotional research with your paintings.

So is it possible to draw conclusions about the psychology of the artist from the pictures?
It is definitely a temptation. Without considering the psychology of the artist, I think there is a lot that simply cannot be understood. It seems to me that both are important: to deal with the artwork in its purest form and also to take into account the personality of the artist. However, it should not be pathologised.

What does it mean to be a family?
In art, this is a huge challenge. Many photographs show the extent to which artists deal with their families. That can be very different. Some photographs are completely heroic about the family, others are more sober and distant.

How has the representation of the family changed over the centuries?
Even in the Middle Ages, depictions of the family ranged widely, from the heroic to the theological abstract. For example, when Max Beckmann depicted Adam and Eve, the painting resonated with the poverty of the 1920s in which the artist lived. Artists became increasingly psychologically adept, adopting the attitude of researchers from the 19th century onwards.

In your book you refer to the therapeutic process reflected in the pictures, even though some of the works were created more than a hundred years ago. So the basic model of the family has not changed?
Yes, even on a large scale. Politically, sociologically, but also in terms of the reception of the paintings. At first, the focus was more on the extended family, shifting more and more towards depicting couples. Maybe with a child or two. When I walk through the museum, it’s like seeing what my patients tell me is on display in front of me.

Can painting be seen as the emancipation of the soul?
Not directly. Painting is more like depiction and exploration. I doubt that it has created liberation. You could perhaps call it the liberation of truth, because through the process of research that the artist goes through he reveals some truth.

As a psychoanalyst, do you have a desire to talk to artists about what they have painted?
That would be beautiful, but I’m very reserved. I had two very fruitful conversations with artists about their work. One was even upset because he didn’t want me to try to draw conclusions about his psychology from the photographs. I had very little contact with the artists.

You are already deeply involved with God. Do you think it plays a part in the family portrait?
It must have been early on, because that’s where the Holy Family is usually depicted. You can also see religious references in Romantic works. Especially Caspar David Friedrich. His landscape paintings exude a religious atmosphere. Of course, the crosses in the pictures must also be related to religion. But even without them, they have a very religious effect.

You often let your patients comment in your books.
I have a lot of pictures hanging in my practice. By the artist, but also by the patient. Sometimes I let the patients tell something about the pictures. Then they start talking to the plant and I talk to them.

So what is the significance of art from a psychoanalytic point of view?
Art opens the door to one’s soul and has become an integral part of psychoanalytic therapy.

Tilmann Moser “Kunst und Psyche. Familienbeziehungen”

Best Spring Mattresses – Types & Reviews

1. Pocket Spring Mattress

The pocket spring mattress is mostly known for its grid of springs which is located in a separate fabric pocket for each of them. Other names for it include encased springs, wrapped coils, and encased coils. Each of the springs operates independently as they are not wired jointly.

The reason why this mattress is considered a great product to buy is that the surrounding areas of each spring are not affected by the weight of any one of them. According to www.foamglobes.com research, the main idea behind the manufacturing of these spring mattresses is to provide the best and appropriate support concerning motion transfer suppression when there is more than one person sleeping on the bed.

It is also great to note that because the pocket spring mattress is a well-made product, the satisfactory level of wadding or firm pad on the underneath, makes it suited to be used on a slatted base.

Construction

There are some basic things to consider when choosing this mattress. These include the fact that any regular type of mattresses contains 325 springs. However, this particular type of mattress has a minimum of 1000 springs and can have a maximum of 3000 springs. The requirement for a mattress over 2000 spring though, is if the weight on it is more than 30 stone.

Usage

The mattress with 1000, 1500 or 3000 springs is considered to be firm and of good quality. A common problem that people have is back pain and most times this is as a result of unfavorable sleeping conditions. Unlike the standard innerspring mattresses where every disturbance is felt because of the continuous wiring, the separately encased springs serve to effectively reduce motion transfer. In addition to exercise and good nutrition to take care of the body, quality sleep will allow the body to repair, cleanse and rejuvenate the mind and body.

Advantages

  • Exceptional spinal support
  • Adapts to the movement and contours of the body
  • Responsible for completely undisturbed sleep
  • Best choice for durability, comfort and support
  • Allows the regulation of moisture as well as air circulation to avoid heat build-up

Disadvantages

  • Tendency to sag after about a year or two of use
  • The maximum warranty of the pocket spring mattress is 10 years
  • Not much support for spinal alignment or the back
  • Pressure points are unavoidable as each spring has the same push back force and body weight do not spread evenly

Lifespan and cleaning

Like any other mattress, overtime the pocket spring mattress tends to get softer. However, this type of mattress is designed to take care of the body for a long period so one can last for up to ten years. It is important to keep the mattress clean and protect it from liquids by using a mattress protector of good quality.

If the mattress should get soiled there is a particular way to clean it. The one cleaning method that is recommended is vacuuming. Lightly apply cold water and a mild soap if cleaning a stain. It is never a wise move to soak any mattress. Using chemicals or fluids for dry cleaning can cause damage to the comfort level of the materials used to upholster it.

2. Coil Spring Mattress

The coil spring mattress uses a pre-compressed coil spring system to offer comfort and support to the user. The springs are open and often there are as many as 360 in each mattress, which are linked throughout a wireframe.

What is a Pocketed Coil Spring Mattress?

This style of mattress is similar to the coil spring mattress; however, every coil spring is individually sewed into a small pocket, which provides unique uplift and support.

What is an Open Coil Spring Mattress?

There are several different styles of open coil spring mattresses, and all are beneficial to the user. These mattresses are mass-produced, and offer a spring system that is linked together across the whole length and width of the mattress.

Difference between Coil and Spring Mattress

The main differences between coil and sprung mattresses are the initial design and style of springs that are used.

Advantages

  • Affordable
  • Bounce affect
  • Many different styles
  • Firm
  • Not temperature sensitive

Disadvantages

  • Not as much relief as other styles of mattress
  • Comfort level decreases rapidly
  • Wear and tear happens far faster
  • Sleep patterns affected

3. Innerspring Mattress

An innerspring mattress comprises of three core elements, which include the foundation, the spring core and the upholstery. This style of mattress was invented in 1871 and has continued to grow in popularity ever since. The most iconic product on the market today is the Molblly 12-inch Innerspring hybrid mattress, its unique Tempered Steel Coil System technical process has raised the industry standard of Innerspring Mattress to a higher level.

How is it made?

Innerspring mattresses are made up of hundreds of coils, and as the number increases, the firmness of the mattress is determined. There are many different innerspring mattresses on the market today; however, they all use the coil system.

Does it needs boxspring?

Some people do use the innerspring mattress with a box spring; however, it is not necessary, and you will find they are just as comfortable on their own.

Can you use it on an adjustable bed?

Yes, the innerspring mattress can be used for adjustable beds; however, there are other alternatives that are often preferred. This style of mattress is not that flexible, which can make the bed feel uncomfortable.

Is it safe?

Consumers continue to worry about their safety when sleeping, which is why they want to ensure that the mattress they choose is safe. The innerspring mattress is entirely safe and is not toxic at all, guaranteeing that every family member can have one of these mattresses on their bed.

Durability and Lifespan

This style of mattress does tend to sag far faster than others, which means that it does not have such longevity as other styles. However, with the correct care you will find that the innerspring mattress can last for up to eight years.

How to Clean

Cleaning a mattress may seem a daunting task, and you need to understand the correct method of cleaning before you begin. The mattress should be routinely vacuumed, and then cleaned with a spray bottle and hard brush. You need to ensure that the mattress can dry thoroughly before you return it to the bed.

Advantages

  • Affordable
  • Comfortable
  • Easy to find
  • Pockets for comfort
  • Top quality materials

Disadvantages

  • Can attract dust mites
  • Will become dirty with time
  • Sags over the years

Product reviews

We have selected the most representative spring mattresses on the market, and reviewed their advantages and disadvantages and other characteristics one by one

1. Brentwood finale quilted eurotop innerspring mattress

Available in the sizes Twin, Queen, Twin XL, King and California King, the Brentwood Finale is about eleven inches in height. It uses thirteen and a half gauge tempered steel spring coils for boosted support. There is an extra thick layer of padded upholstery of about six inches combined into a deluxe euro top offering ultimate plush comfort. The mattress is rolled up and compressed to save on shipping costs and the shipping weight is approximately seventy two pounds.

Pros

One of the god things about this mattress is that is manufactured in the US. One can sleep comfortably and wake up feeling rested. The Brentwood Finale provides an even and symmetrical comfort. It blends the right amounts of softness with the right amounts of firmness to concoct a magnificent mattress. It is accompanied by a one year limited warranty from the manufacturer. The installation is just a simple matter of ripping open the packaging and it plumps up into a nice bed offering luxurious comfort to anyone.

Cons

There are some users who have experienced some troubles with this mattress. Some found the stitching of the edges and corners to be sloppy and some found it to appear as if deformed. Meanwhile some people even complained that the bed is not comfortable and one has to sleep in the middle of the bed to keep from falling.

Right on the money

The Brentwood Finale has had very little bad reviews and a lot of good reviews. The price is just right so it does not pull on the budget strings while the comfort is so splendid that it should not be passed up. If you want to feel luxury, this mattress is it!

2. Brentwood intrigue quilted inner spring mattress

Having a thickness of approximately seven inches, the Brentwood Intrigue is available in four different sizes; Twin, Full, Queen and Twin XL. For an everlasting support, the Brentwood Intrigue incorporates thirteen and a half gauge tempered steel coils in its mattress. Added plush comfort is guaranteed by its multiple layers of padded upholstery and quilting. It is available for shipping throughout the US and a selected other countries. The mattress is compressed and rolled up for the ease of delivery.

Pros

One of the good things about the Brentwood Intrigue is that it is manufactured in USA. Also, the mattress comes with a one year warranty which can be claimed in case you experience dissatisfaction. It comes with easy installation- all you have to do is cut up the packaging and it starts to decompress and inflate into its original size. The lack of its quality is compensated by the amazingly low price.

Cons

Even though the Brentwood Intrigue has layers of padding and quilting between the coils and the cover, the springs will poke you in the back when you are tossing and turning to catch a wink. In addition to this, it is not a noise free mattress and the sounds of the springs become quite annoying. Even though it is advertised to be seven inches thick, it does not really feel like it. The thickness feels around five inches or so but definitely nowhere near seven inches.

3. Brentwood well-being encore Mattress

The Brentwood Encore is one of the beautifully designed mattresses in the Brentwood Performance series. It flaunts its inner spring construction and exquisite craftsmanship and is one step ahead of the Brentwood Intrigue. The mattress has eight inch Certipur-US certified soft foam with extra plush.

It guarantees peaceful and calming sleep. The individually wrapped 13.8 gauge steel springs are super quiet unlike many other bed springs, working together with the padded, quilted surface providing even more comfort. Each mattress is manufactured in USA and with a one year warranty. It saves one shipping costs by easy compressed and rolled up packaging. Sizes available are Twin, Full, Queen, Twin XL.

Pros

According to the customer reviews, the packaging was simple enough to open up and the delivery was as promised. The mattress is a soft and highly comfortable as the company claims. Another point worth noting about the Brentwood Encore is that it is a fair deal, meaning to say that this level of comfort would usually have a higher price than the Brentwood Encore has.

Cons

The first and foremost drawback of purchasing this mattress is that it takes at least two days to decompress and plump up, since its packaging is done by compressing it. Many customers have complained that it loses its cushioning too soon. Since the mattress is very soft, a person with heavy build is not recommended to use it because they would eventually feel themselves sinking into the mattress. It is also a heavy mattress and therefore moving it is a hassle.

Best for lightweight sleepers

Although the mattress is as soft as advertised, it is not suitable for normal to heavy build persons. On the other hand lightweight sleepers would surely enjoy a relaxing sleep.

Deciding on a Filing Cabinet

Once you have made the smart decision to invest some of your hard earn money in a filing cabinet to organize all your paperwork, you should do some thorough research in order to make a well-informed decision.

You will no doubt run into a vast array of filing cabinets in your local office furniture shop, department stores and not to even mention online. There are filing cabinets made from metal, wood, and even plastic. You can get vertical filing cabinets, lateral filing cabinets, and flat filing cabinets. The sizes and color can vary as well – should you go for a black 2 Drawer Filing Cabinet or a white 4 drawer filing cabinet?

To start you off, a particular brand and model which is renowned for being a good quality filing cabinet is the Hon 2 drawer filing cabinet range. Whichever you end up choosing, ensure that you have a set of criteria against which to compare.

HON 314PP 310 Series 26-1/2-Inch 4-Drawer Full-Suspension Letter File, Black

High drawer sides add strength and serve as front-to-back hangrails Spring-loaded follower block in each drawer keeps files upright and neat Thumb latch keeps drawers safely closed Label holders for quick and easy identification of contents File Cabinet Type: Vertical; File Size Format: Letter; Media Stored: N\A; Width: 15-Inch

HON 314CPP 310 Series 26-1/2-Inch 4-Drawer Full-Suspension Legal File, Black

High drawer sides add strength and serve as front-to-back hangrails Spring-loaded follower block in each drawer keeps files upright and neat Thumb latch keeps drawers safely closed Label holders for quick and easy identification of contents File Cabinet Type: Vertical; File Size Format: Legal; Media Stored: N\A; Width: 18-1/4-Inch

Why all the fuss with filing cabinets? They without a doubt can be a very useful device for storing all your paperwork and files. Aside from the practicality, if you choose just the right design and style, it can blend well with your office room, thereby improving the overall aesthetics.

Personally, I found that a wooden 4 drawer filing cabinet works very well for my office. Whichever one you decide on, as you do your shopping, you should take care to check the product thoroughly before handing over your cash. As obvious as this may sound now, I didn’t know at the time of purchase that you should check whether the wood is solid or just laminated on the surface.

Coaster Legal/Letter File Filing Cabinet with Lock, 2-Drawer, Cherry Finish

Cherry Finish 2 Drawer Legal/Letter File Filing Cabinet with Lock. Dimensions: 18.75″W x 21″D x 30″H. Finish: Cherry. Material: Wood. File Cabinet for legal and letter-size files. Two storage drawers with a lock. Antique brass finish hardware. Details and quality of this file cabinet add warmth and beauty to your home office.

Espresso Finish Wood File Cabinet with 3 Drawers

This new file cabinet has solid wood pieces all with an espresso finish. It is on swiveling wheels which makes it easier to move around. Dimensions: 27″ high x 19″ wide x 16″ deep. This item is moderately easy to assemble. There are instructions included. These also can be used for legal size, but hangers will be needed and are not included. This file cabinet is letter size width, but legal files can be used going side to side. You can pick up hangers at any local store for around Six to Ten Dollars

2 Tier Wood Desk Organizer W/ Drawer Shelf Cabinet

This durable 2 tier wood organizer shelf with drawer is all made of Solid Wood and provides 12 X 11 inches of convenient platform area which is just right for picture frames and many other uses. The drawer has 3 compartments which measure 10″ by 3″ wide and 4″ inches in height, where you can store many small items such as money, change, thread, etc. Measurements: * Height: From bottom to top shelf 5″ from bottom to lower shelf 3 1/2″ from lower shelf to higher shelf 1 1/2″ * Measures 1 foot wide by 11″ in length * The pull-out drawer has 3 compartments Each compartments measures 10″ long 3″ Wide and 4″ high

Winsome Wood Writing Desk, Honey

This old-fashioned writing desk is updated with a sturdy frame and a sleek Honey Pine finish. The three drawers and shelf space provide plenty of room to store all of your stationery supplies. Mix and match with the rest of the Studio Home Office line.

Wooden filing cabinets come as either a block of solid wood or are made from medium-density fiberboards (MDF) with laminated wood. The former is significantly more expensive than the latter which merely looks like wood but of course, is not on the same level of quality. If you are low on a budget, then the MDF filing cabinet is a fine choice, but make sure that the manufacturer or seller advertises it as such and prices accordingly.

Accent Rugs Improve Design

One way to draw attention to a specific area of a room is with the placement of a rug in that area. You can use one or more accent rugs in almost every room of your home.

A rug placed at your front door is the perfect way to welcome guests and protect your flooring. If you have space in your entryway for a small piece of furniture such as an accent table or coat tree, that space can be made more attractive if you place a rug under the furniture. It will add color and texture to a space that is sometimes neglected in the decorating process.

In a living area, you have numerous opportunities for adding warmth and beauty to the room with rugs. You can use a rug to create a reading area in your living room or to designate an office workspace. You can place a rug in a specific area of the room and designate it as a special place for your pet to sleep. A rug placed in front of an armoire or sideboard will draw attention to that specific piece of furniture. If your living room is designed for a casual lifestyle, a soft, plush rug and a few floor pillows placed in front of the television may turn out to be the perfect place for family movie time.

Children love to play on the floor. A rug designed especially for them would be a great addition to their room. Bright colors, cartoon characters, and animal-themed rugs generally appeal to children. A teenage girl would probably love the addition of a brightly colored shag rug to her bedroom decor.

Thick, soft, decorative accent rugs make a great addition to a master bedroom or guest room. They add an atmosphere of warmth and comfort to the room.

Aim For Safety With Loft Ladder Handrails

Safety is one of the big selling points when dealing with items that have the potential to put you into a dangerous situation. It stands to reason that for things such as ladders and loft ladders there is some responsibility to the manufacturer to try to add features that will help make their products as safe to use as possible.

For this reason, it is possible to buy loft ladders with handrails. One of the reasons that some people install loft ladders is to open up the possibility of using the space in the attic as storage space. When you have storage space you have to get the things you’re planning on storing into the space. This means carrying bundles of items up and down the loft ladder stairs which also means that there is a very real possibility that a step may be missed and falls can occur.

By installing a loft ladder with a handrail attached you are giving yourself the added security of knowing that you will always have something to hang on to when ascending and descending the ladder. The most common type of loft ladders that come with handrails is wooden loft ladders. As the ladder unfolds the handrail will fall neatly into place and lock so that it won’t move while it is in use.

It may also be the case that the handrail is not needed or it could prove to be getting in the way when moving large items up into the attic. There are some models of loft ladders in which the handrail may be detached and then reattached later when it is needed. It creates a loft ladder that has added versatility making it a more attractive option over loft ladders that don’t offer these features.

Whether you are looking at an aluminum loft ladder or a wooden loft ladder it might be a good idea to take in the possibility that you might require a loft ladder with added safety features such as the handrail.

Finding A Good Alarm Monitoring Company

Finding a good alarm monitoring company can be a challenging task with all the loads of information and services that are currently being offered these days. And choosing the right one can make all the difference for you and your family.

At one time or another, door-to-door salespeople offering a free alarm system installation with a paid contract have visited most homeowners. This can sound like a great offer but what is hidden behind the offer? Hidden is a lack of guarantees, insurance, and the fact that it is a small offer only. Most of these “free” offers often only include one door and one window. Some companies will not even explain that until after they have installed the alarm system. Each window and door costs extra, so the net effect is expensive for the homeowner.

What is the best way to choose an alarm company?

Begin the search by doing a little research and contacting the National Burglar and Fire Alarm Association. They have brochures available to homeowners listing companies and issues to be cognizant about. Next, talk to an insurance agent. Insurance companies love alarm companies because alarms reduce theft and overall insurance claims. Next, make sure the alarm company is certified and insured against any damage accidentally done to a home. Do not pick the first company, get quotes from three or four, and let each one know about the others. Competition is a good thing in any market and will get the overall best deal.

Finally, find a company that has been in business for a while and services many people. If they have a long positive record of accomplishment, chances are, they are a great company to contract. Additionally, when getting a quote, ask them about every window and door, fire, and carbon dioxide alarm. Finding a Good Alarm Monitoring Company Find…  Keep yourself and your family safe and install one today. Visit alarm monitoring companies and wireless security systems for more information.